Feb 09, 2014 · 4.1. Sperm Motility, Number and Viability The results of mean sperm motility, number and viability are presented in Figures 1-3, respectively. a) Effects of sertraline on sperm motility: There is a significant decrease in motility of sperm. Three doses of ser- traline (0.0534 mg/kg) per day have the most significant effect on decreasing the ...
Apr 25, 2019 · Yes, but it’s extremely rare. Although there isn’t a lot of hard data, semen allergies may affect up to 40,000 females in the United States.. That’s a small percentage of the nearly ...
Mar 14, 2016 · On the other hand, it is assumed that storage period in deep freezing does not affect sperm viability [24, 25], and there is argument that spermatozoa retain their fertilizing potential indefinitely when stored at −79°C in dry ice, or at −196°C in liquid nitrogen . However, there is a scarcity of studies designed in order to detect a ...
Dec 13, 2018 · Similarly, exposure to imidacloprid was found to affect drone sperm viability and mitochondrial activity, although the intensity of the effect also varied significantly between colonies . Together, these findings show that exposure to field-applied pesticides, either through contamination of the beeswax substrate used for brood rearing, or ...
decreased sperm motility and viability. LC did not alter the baseline of sperm DNA oxidation during both incubation and centrifugation. In conclusion, LC may enhance sperm motility following incubation and centrifugation, while it might not affect sperm viability and DNA oxidation. ª 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH Andrologia 2012, 44, 505–512 505
Sep 22, 2021 · causes irreversible damage to sperm that can affect its ability to fertilize and generate a viable. ... motility and viability of cryopreserved ram semen and decreases lipid peroxidation in.
Apr 22, 2020 · Viability or Vitality . What It Is: Sperm viability refers to the percentage of live sperm in the semen sample. This is especially important to measure if sperm motility is low, to differentiate between live non-motile sperm and dead sperm.
May 01, 2020 · Moradi et al. (2013) examining the protective properties of RJ during sperm storage for up to 120 h described that its addition caused an increase in sperm viability depending on RJ concentration and length of storage. As in case of sperm morphology, the type of semen extender and storage time affect the kinetic values of sperm.
The viability of sperm is an important aspect of ejaculate quality that determines competitive fertilization success in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Using in vitro mixtures of sperm and seminal fluid from pairs of male crickets, we show that seminal fluid can affect the viability of sperm in this species.
Ergothioneine improves the total motility and viability of cryopreserved ram semen and decreases lipid peroxidation in cryopreserved rooster and ram sperm [14,15]. An important advantage of ERG over other antioxidants is that it does not interfere with the important roles of ROS but acts when oxidative damage becomes excessive [ 18 ].
Honey bee Apis mellifera colonies invest a substantial amount of colony resources in the production of drones during the reproductive season to enable mating with virgin queens from nearby colonies. Recent studies have shown significant differences in the production of sperm cells that are viable i. In particular, sperm viability may be negatively affected during drone development from exposure to pesticides in contaminated beeswax. To assess whether sperm viability is negatively affected during drone development from exposure to beeswax contaminated with in-hive pesticides, we compared the viability of sperm collected from drones reared in pesticide-free beeswax with that of drones reared in beeswax contaminated with field-relevant concentrations of the pesticides most commonly found in wax from commercial beekeeping operations in the United States. These pesticides include the miticides fluvalinate, coumaphos and amitraz, and the agro-chemicals chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos. Sperm from drones collected at 10 and 18 days post emergence were classified as viable or non-viable to calculate sperm viability. For all pesticide treatment groups, drones that were reared in pesticide-laden beeswax had lower sperm viability compared to those reared in pesticide-free beeswax. This difference was especially pronounced among drones reared in miticide-laden wax. Our results reinforce the notion that pesticide contamination of beeswax negatively affects the reproductive quality of drones, which can affect the queens they mate with, ultimately compromising colony health. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Among species of eusocial Hymenoptera ants, wasps, and bees , males live sheltered lives inside their hives, where they are raised by sister workers until they are ready to mate [ 1 ]. A substantial amount of colony resources is invested in the care and nurturing of males, despite the fact that they provide no contributions to colony maintenance apart from reproduction [ 2 ]. Male rearing by workers appears regularly among eusocial insects [ 3 ], especially in swarm-founding species such as honey bees in the genus Apis , which exhibit an extreme male-biased sex ratio in reproductive individuals [ 4 , 5 ]. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera , colonies are composed of one queen and a few thousand seasonal males drones , which are only reared during the reproductive season when colony resources are plentiful [ 4 ]. Virgin honey bee queens mate with an average of 12 to 15 drones [ 6 ], collecting and depositing 4 to 7 million sperm cells for up to five years in a sperm-storing organ known as the spermatheca [ 7 — 9 ]. During the reproductive season thousands of drones congregate up in the air where they locate and attempt to mate with virgin queens from nearby, unrelated colonies [ 4 ]. As competition among drones for a chance to mate is intense, those individuals with higher sexual competitiveness are likely to have higher reproductive fitness compared to less competitive ones [ 5 ]. Exposure to pesticides is one of the environmental factors that could negatively impact drone sperm viability. Studies examining fipronil, a systemic insecticide, discovered significant repercussions to drone reproductive health following exposure, including a reduction in sperm viability [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. Additionally, exposure to fipronil reduced sperm production while conversely increasing sperm metabolism [ 11 ]. Fipronil also conferred synergistic effects on drones following co-exposure with the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae , increasing negative impacts on neural, metabolic, and detoxification processes in tagma and the midgut [ 12 ]. Furthermore, the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid negatively impacted hemolymph antioxidant capacity in drones at different ages [ 14 ]. However, the seminal plasma exhibited a lower antioxidant capacity than hemolymph and thus, seminal plama be more sensitive to the stresses of insecticide exposure [ 14 ]. In a study examining commercial beekeeping operations in the United States, Mullin et al. The group of chemicals used to combat the honey bee ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is especially troubling because they were the most prevalent pesticides found in those samples. When Varroa mites are found in large numbers and left untreated, colonies collapse and often die [ 16 ]. Continuous treatment of colonies against Varroa mite infestations has led to most mite populations becoming resistant to the miticides most commonly used in the last two decades [ 17 , 18 ], and has caused escalating and prolonged contamination of the wax inside hives [ 15 ]. But despite their ubiquitous presence in wax, few studies have explored the effects of exposure to these pesticides on drone reproductive quality. Exposure to the pyrethroid fluvalinate and the formamidine amitraz, which are active ingredients of many Varroa control products used in the beekeeping industry, has been found to lower drone body weight and mating flight frequency [ 19 , 20 ]. In addition, fluvalinate and amitraz, as well as the organophosphate coumaphos, cause lower drone sperm counts and viability [ 20 , 21 ]. Interestingly, Johnson et al. However, in that study, miticides were applied topically on one- to four-day-old adult drones, thus leaving a knowledge gap on the potential effects of exposure to miticides during development on drone reproductive quality. It is particularly important to fill this gap because new adult drones emerge from their cells with all the sperm they will ever possess [ 5 , 23 ]. In fact, they undergo only minor anatomical changes after emergence [ 24 ], an aspect of male biology found in other hymenopteran species [ 2 ]. Therefore, we hypothesize that environmental conditions faced by drones during development may affect their reproductive fitness as adults. Incidentally, because the comb within hives is typically contaminated with several miticides at once [ 15 ], studies on the effects of pesticide contamination of the wax environment on drone reproductive quality should build on the aforementioned findings and focus on combinations of these chemicals, not simply focus on one product at a time. Several agro-chemicals have also been found to negatively impact drone reproductive health. In particular, oral exposure to the neonicotinoid insecticides thiamethoxam and clothianidin are known to decrease sperm viability in adult drones [ 25 ]. Similarly, exposure to imidacloprid was found to affect drone sperm viability and mitochondrial activity, although the intensity of the effect also varied significantly between colonies [ 26 ]. Together, these findings show that exposure to field-applied pesticides, either through contamination of the beeswax substrate used for brood rearing, or through consumption of contaminated food, negatively affects drone sperm counts and viability. In this study, we reared drones using frames of plastic foundation coated with wax that was either pesticide-free or contaminated with field-relevant concentrations of the five most ubiquitous agrochemicals found in wax samples i. We then measured sperm viability in adult drones that were reared in either pesticide-free or pesticide-laden wax. We make recommendations regarding the use of these pesticides near or within honey bee colonies based on our findings. This study was conducted during the and reproductive seasons at the Janice and John G. To stimulate the production of experimental drones, we introduced plastic drone foundation frames into strong colonies to encourage drone rearing. The frames were previously coated with melted beeswax following the procedures outlined below. To prepare the frames used for drone rearing, approximately 20 lbs of organic, cosmetic grade beeswax pellets Koster Keunen Inc. Once the wax was melted, plastic drone foundation frames Brushy Mountain Bee Farm, Moravian Falls, NC were submerged individually into the molten wax once or twice until they were fully coated.
Drone development from egg to adult emergence lasts approximately 24 days, exceeding the time of development for queens 16 days and workers 21 days. Baudry, E. Most importantly, they found that Elzen PJ, Westervelt D. Talanta 52 , — Google Scholar Straub, L. One pooled capillary tube from each experimental group was randomly selected and used for sperm viability analysis once a week for 6 weeks. If obtaining a sample via masturbation is difficult, you might be able to collect a sample via intercourse using a specialized condom at home. Cobey S. Kairo et al. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. View Article Google Scholar 4. Most extenders used today also contain antibiotics to decrease bacterial growth in semen; however, additional antimicrobial supplementation of extender is also accepted. Years later, Burley explored the effects of miticides on drone reproductive physiology. Ask your doctor about fertility-approved lubricants and specialty condoms that are available for the collection of semen samples. Previous estimates of the age at which drones reach sexual maturity range from a low end of 6 to 8 days Bishop ; Mackensen and Roberts , to higher estimates of 10 to 12 days Woyke and Ruttner ; Moritz ; Nguyen , and even 16 days Rhodes post emergence. In conclusion, even though insecticides widely used in the foraging environment can negatively impact drone reproductive quality Straub et al. If there any antibodies present that fight sperm it can make it difficult for the sperm to fertilize an egg. Experimental frames with brood remained in their respective host hives throughout larval development. When Varroa mites are found in large numbers and left untreated, colonies collapse and often die [ 16 ]. Reactive oxygen species and human spermatozoa: I. Insect Soc. Special thanks to all professional and technical personnel of the Center of Artificial Insemination, that from the s set up and development the bovine semen cryopreservation in Chile and whose seminal doses stored for long term has made this study possible. Ruttner, F. Most lubricants contain chemicals that can harm sperm. Berg, S. Queens bearing a mating sign elicit greater attraction from subsequent drone mates compared to queens lacking one. The cell counter then automatically quantified the number of viable and non-viable sperm cells in each sample, from which a sperm viability estimate was then estimated. The Biology of the Honey Bee. For iPhone. Fahrenholz, L. Boes, K. World J Mens Health ; Google Scholar Rinderer, T. As a result, we were forced to obtain semen through dissecting drones and accessing the seminal vesicles at 10 days post emergence. Google Scholar Abou-Shaara, H. The ASRM recommends that at least two samples are collected, taken about a month apart. Sperm motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 24 h after swim-up. A scientific note on the revised estimates of effective paternity frequency in Apis. In , frames were paired off such that two control frames accompanying two treatment frames in each hive, resulting in the use of four hives. DCAs are composed of drones from up to colonies located up to 5 km away from each other Free ; Baudry et al. The Instrumental Insemination of the Queen Bee. The drones were subsequently marked and placed in an untreated colony until they reached 12 days of age, and were then recaptured and collected for dissection of the mucus glands and seminal vesicles. Using a non-fertility-safe lubricant or regular condom can kill sperm, even if they don't contain spermicide. Smoking, obesity, and excess alcohol intake has been linked to low sperm count. The negative impact of common in-hive pesticides on drone fertility may confer queens with a sizeable proportion of non-viable sperm from their mates, which may contribute to a reduction in their supply of viable sperm needed to fertilize eggs [ 43 ]. Apidologie 45 , — Nguyen, V. Iran J Reprod Med ; If a man has a high sperm count it can help to combat if his sperm has lower viability.
Semen analysis is an important fertility test for infertile couples, and the test should be done before any treatments even "just Clomid " are prescribed. Also referred to as sperm count testing, semen analysis includes more than just a sperm count. While one-third of infertility cases involve the female partner, one-third of infertility cases are related to the male partner. The other third involves both partners or is unexplained infertility. Every infertile couple must make sure the male partner is tested. Even if a fertility problem has been identified in the female partner, that doesn't mean the male partner's fertility is normal. Many men experience anxiety over the test—and later, over the results. Here's what to expect during a semen analysis, what the results mean, and what happens if they are abnormal. Your doctor will probably tell you that you need to abstain from intercourse for at least two to three days prior to taking the test. According to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine ASRM , a semen sample should be taken no less than two to three days after sexual intercourse, and no more than seven days. The ASRM recommends that at least two samples are collected, taken about a month apart. You may also be asked to repeat the test, especially if the first results are abnormal or borderline abnormal. The testicles are outside the body in the scrotum because sperm are sensitive to temperature. This is why you'll want to avoid high heat exposure in the two to three months before your test, which includes activities such as sitting in a hot tub, using car seat warmers, and high-heat exposure in the workplace. A high fever can also affect your sperm counts. If you have been exposed to high heat or experienced a high fever, it can take several weeks for your sperm counts to return to normal. Make sure to let your doctor know if these factors are relevant to you so that your test can be timed properly. Some experts recommend that you avoid smoking, drinking alcohol , caffeine , and recreational drugs the week before your semen analysis. There's a possibility that lifestyle habits can negatively impact your sperm count, but it's unlikely that giving them up for a week will make a difference in your test results. The process of sperm creation takes place over two to three months. If you want to try to improve your fertility, consider giving up these habits for the longterm. Some prescription drugs can also negatively impact sperm counts. If you're taking any of these medications, your semen analysis results might be affected. Let your doctor know about any medications you are currently taking. Your doctor might want you to have the semen analysis while continuing with your medications to see if they are causing a problem , or they may want you to stop the medication or switch to an alternative. Never stop taking a prescription drug without first talking to your doctor. The semen sample is collected by self-stimulation masturbation into a sterile container. Most lubricants contain chemicals that can harm sperm. Your doctor will likely ask you to avoid them when producing the sample. Saliva can also harm sperm, so don't use your own spit as a lubricant either. Ask your doctor about the specialized lubricants that have been approved for use for fertility testing and treatment. The clinic should have a room set aside just for semen collection. They may or may not have materials to help inspire you for the collection, so you might want to bring a magazine or your smartphone. If obtaining a sample via masturbation is difficult, you might be able to collect a sample via intercourse using a specialized condom at home. However, do not use any condom—the chemicals in regular condoms can damage the sperm sample, skewing the results. Ask your doctor about how to obtain the specialized condom. You might be able to produce the sample at home via self-stimulation. Keep in mind that a semen sample should be evaluated within a particular time frame generally two hours. You may be nervous about providing the sample and anxious to receive the results of a semen analysis. If you are having trouble ejaculating to produce the sample, you're not alone. Ask your doctor about the steps you can take to help get the semen sample. It's not uncommon for some men to be hesitant about semen analysis testing or even refuse it. Reasons men have for not wanting to do the test include fear of having their "manhood" judged, religious objections to collecting the sample, or embarrassment regarding the method of collection. If you have concerns or fears about the test, talk to your doctor. It's important that you undergo the test to determine if there is a sperm-related cause for the infertility challenges you are experiencing.